This Tree-Of-The-Month is commonly known as the Spring Flowering Dogwoods (Cornus florida).
The Spring Flowering Dogwood is a beautiful native tree with a four-season appeal. It has lovely flowers in spring, attractive foliage in summer and fall, colorful fruit in fall, and an exciting growth habit that provides winter interest. The native habitat of Spring Flowering Dogwood is Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas, Mexico, and Ontario. The Spring Flowering Dogwoods' growth habit is Shrub-like or a small tree with low branches. It usually has a flat-topped crown and is more extensive than high when mature. Spring Flowering Dogwood will eventually get 30 to 40 feet tall with a greater spread.
Flowering dogwood is an essential understory species in the eastern deciduous and southern coniferous forests. This tree should be placed in the landscape where it receives partial shade but will tolerate full sun site if the soils are deep and rich.
The true flowers of the Spring Flowering Dogwood are greenish-yellow and insignificant; the four bracts are showy. The showy part of the dogwood flower is not the flower at all but the bracts. The true flower is greenish-yellow and insignificant. The bracts are white and about 2 inches long and are effective for ten days to two weeks in April or early May. Flower buds are flat and biscuit-shaped. The four together are 3 to 4 inches across. Blossoms are effective for 10 to 14 days in April or early May. The fruit is a glossy red drupe that ripens from September to October. It can persist until mid-December. Its fruit is an important food source. Flowering dogwood is a valuable food plant for wildlife because high calcium and fat contents make it palatable. Many bird types, including songbirds, forest edge species, and upland game birds (e.g., wild turkey), consume the seeds. The eastern chipmunk, white-footed mouse, gray fox, gray squirrel, black bear, beaver, white-tailed deer, and skunk readily consume flowering dogwood seeds as well. The fruit of flowering dogwood is poisonous to humans.
The Spring Flowering Dogwood's leaves are arranged opposite on its branches, and they are simple. The leaves of Spring Flowering are 3 to 6 inches long and oval. The Spring Flowering Dogwood's leaves are bronze-green to yellow-green as they unfold, then turn dark green in summer. The fall color of the Spring Flowering Dogwood's tends to be red to reddish-purple.
The Spring Flowering Dogwood's is winter hardy to USDA Zone 5.
Flowering dogwood prefers an acidic, well-drained soil that contains a significant amount of organic matter. It can be planted in full sun but performs best in partial shade. The tree should be mulched to keep the soil moist and cool. (Don't Pile the Mulch Against the Tree Trunk) It does not tolerate poorly drained soils, drought, or pollution. It is hardy in Zones 5 to 9. Flowering dogwood is susceptible to borers, petal and leaf spots, and anthracnose if not correctly sited. Flowering dogwood is intolerant of extended drought periods, especially during the first year after planting.
Daily watering is necessary for the first few weeks following planting. After one month, watering should be reduced to two times per week and continue for one year. The establishment takes 6 to 12 months for each inch of trunk diameter. Larger trees benefit from irrigation during the second year.
Check with a local Ohio International Society of Arboriculture Certified Arborist for what cultivars will work in your location.
This tree species and its various cultivars are often sold and are available from nurseries throughout the Ohio region, and it transplants easily. There are nearly 100 cultivars of flowering dogwood. Selected cultivars by category include:
Pink or red flowers:
Unusual growth habit
Flowering dogwood is endangered in Maine, exploitable vulnerable in New York, and threatened in Vermont.
The wood of dogwood has a high resistance to sudden shock, making it a popular choice for making golf club heads and chisel handles. It is also used for mallet heads and wedges, as it can be hammered on the ends without splitting and mushrooming out. Historically Dogwood wood was used to make hay forks, hubs of small wheels, rake teeth, and machinery bearings because it wears smoother as it is used. Dogwood harvested in the late 19th century was used to make shuttles for the textile industry as it will not crack under strain.
The inner bark of the flowering dogwood and its roots are aromatic and contain a chemical known as alkaloid cornin. Native Americans used cornin for the treatment of malaria. Pioneers would steep( something means to soak it )dogwood bark in whiskey, then drink this to treat "the shakes."
Native Americans also used dogwood bark to derive a scarlet dye, which they used to color bald eagle feathers and porcupine quills. Dogwood tea, made from the tree's bark, was used as a substitute for quinine during the Civil War. Tea made from dogwood bark was used to induce sweating to break a fever.
In modern times, the overuse of flowering dogwood as a cut flower has threatened native stands of the tree. In the Washington, D.C. area, the Wild Flower Preservation Society placed posters on city streetcars, urging people not to cut or buy dogwood sprays. Sales dropped to such an extent that many merchants stopped marketing it.
Legend has it that dogwood was once a tall tree, but that changed when it was chosen to make the cross where Jesus Christ was crucified. The legend says the tree was ashamed and asked Christ to forgive it. Christ commanded that from that moment on, the dogwood would be slender and twisted so that it could no longer be used for a cross. The tree was designated to bear cross-shaped flowers, with a crown of thorns in the middle, and nail prints stained with red at the outer edge of each petal. Of course, the flowering dogwood is not native to the area where Christ was crucified.
Tree Selection Tips
The Ohio Chapter ISA recommends working with an ISA Certified Arborist when selecting or caring for any tree in your landscape. To better guide you on the vital plant information for the Spring Flowering Dogwood use our friendly users guide below:
|Life cycle||Perennial woody|
|Origin||Eastern United States|
|Tree form||Variable depending on the cultivar selected|
|Does it produce shade?||Yes|
|Soil||Flowering dogwood trees grow best in course to medium textured, well-drained soils with a pH range of 6 to 7. They are sensitive to rapidly changing soil temperature and are most abundant in temperature-consistent woodland soils. Although they are tolerant of seasonal dry periods, they are not tolerant of severe drought or heavy, saturated soils. The inability to grow on extremely dry sites is attributed to their shallow root system.|
|Bloom season||May-June very showy.|
|Plant height||5-40 feet|
|Plant spread||5-40 feet|
|Suitable for planting under or near electric (utility)||Yes/No-Depends on cultivar chosen|
|Potential Concerns||Susceptible to many insect and disease pests. Most that occur are related to plant stress.|
Written by Mark A. Webber BCMA, CPH, LTE, MArborA, OCMNT, TRAQ
https://www.uky.edu/hort/Flowering-Dogwood (Collected on May 23, 2020)
A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America. Donald Culross Peattie
https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_cofl2.pdf (Collected on May 23, 2020)
Herrick, J.W., 1977. Iroquois medical botany. State University of New York, Albany.
Hamel, P.B., and M.U. Chiltoskey. 1975. Cherokee Plants and their uses—a 400-year history. Herald Publishing, Sylva.
Gilman, E.F., and K.C. Ruppert. 1994. Cornus florida, Fact Sheet ENH-40(http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG267). Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Photograph sources Mark A. Webber 2020